Secondary School Biology Students’ Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology Characterised using Structural Equation Modeling
More details
Hide details
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN
Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN
Online publication date: 2019-12-16
Publication date: 2019-12-16
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2020;16(2):em1822
In biotechnology education research (BTER), the multifaceted construct of attitude has seldom been problematised in depth despite that the majority of studies in BTER during the last two decades have focused on students’ attitudes towards modern biotechnology. Most studies on attitudes in science education use a single-factor model in characterising students’ attitudes, while some use a three-factor model. By means of structural equation modeling the current study tested and evaluated single, three-factor, and bifactor models of student attitudes towards modern biotechnology. To further shed light on the stability of this model measurement invariance testing was carried out for groups; school-type, gender, grade, parental education and educational programme. The results showed that a three-factor model and a bifactor model showed satisfying fit to the student attitude data. The bifactor model were relatively invariant for all groups except for gender, where boys had a more positive attitude. The affective and behavioural aspects of attitudes were highly correlated why the bifactor model with its general factor and specific cognitive factor may provide a more sound explanation of students’ attitudes towards biotechnology. The results indicate the importance of including affective and behavioural dimensions of attitude in biotechnology teaching. Further implications for practice are discussed.
Aikenhead, G. S. (2004). The humanistic and cultural aspects of science & technology education. Paper presented at the Science and Technology Education for a Diverse World–dilemmas, needs and partnerships. International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOSTE) XIth Symposium Proceedings, Lublin, Poland.
Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 27-58.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the attitude-behavior relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. European review of social psychology, 11(1), 1-33.
Alsop, S. (2016). Encountering science education’s capacity to affect and be affected. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 11(3), 551-565.
Bentler, P. M. (2007). On tests and indices for evaluating structural models. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 825-829.
Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of personality and social psychology, 47(6), 1191-1205.
Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Casanoves, M., Gonzalez, A., Salvado, Z., Haro, J., & Novo, M. (2015). Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience. International Journal of Science Education, 37(17), 2923-2941.
Chen, F. F., Hayes, A., Carver, C. S., Laurenceau, J.-P., & Zhang, Z. (2012). Modeling General and Specific Variance in Multifaceted Constructs: A Comparison of the Bifactor Model to Other Approaches. Journal of Personality, 80(1), 219-251.
Chen, S. Y., & Raffan, J. (1999). Biotechnology: Student’s knowledge and attitudes in the UK and Taiwan. Journal of Biological Education, 34(1), 17-23.
Chen, S. Y., Chu, Y. R., Lin, C. Y., & Chiang, T. Y. (2016). Students’ knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44(5), 475-491.
Christidou, V. (2011). Interest, Attitudes and Images Related to Science: Combining Students’ Voices with the Voices of School Science, Teachers, and Popular Science. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 6(2), 141-159.
Costa-Font, J., & Mossialos, E. (2006). The public as a limit to technology transfer: the influence of knowledge and beliefs in attitudes towards biotechnology in the UK. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(6), 629-645.
Crne-Hladnik, H., Peklaj, C., Kosmelj, K., Hladnik, A., & Javornik, B. (2009). Assessment of Slovene secondary school students’ attitudes to biotechnology in terms of usefulness, moral acceptability and risk perception. Public Understanding of Science, 18(6), 747-758.
Dawson, V. (2006). An Exploration of High School (12–17 Year Old) Students’ Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes. Research in Science Education, 37(1), 59-73.
Dawson, V., & Schibeci, R. (2003). Western Australian high school students’ attitudes towards biotechnology processes. Journal of Biological Education, 38(1), 7-12.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Orlando, FL, US: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude structure and function. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 269-322). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2007). Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Model Misspecification and Model Types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(3), 509-529.
Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2007). Attitudes: Foundations, functions, and consequences. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), The Sage handbook of social psychology (pp. 123-145). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Fernbach, P. M., Light, N., Scott, S. E., Inbar, Y., & Rozin, P. (2019). Extreme opponents of genetically modified foods know the least but think they know the most. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(3), 251-256.
Finke, M. S., & Kim, H. (2004). Attitudes about genetically modified foods among Korean and American college students. AgBioForum, 6(4), 191-197.
Fonseca, M. J., Costa, P., Lencastre, L., & Tavares, F. (2012a). Disclosing biology teachers’ beliefs about biotechnology and biotechnology education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(3), 368-381.
Fonseca, M. J., Costa, P., Lencastre, L., & Tavares, F. (2012b). Multidimensional analysis of high-school students’ perceptions about biotechnology. Journal of Biological Education, 46(3), 129-139.
France, B. (2007). Location, Location, Location: Positioning Biotechnology Education for the 21st Century. Studies in Science Education, 43(1), 88-122.
Gaskell, G., Allum, N., Wagner, W., Kronberger, N., Torgersen, H., Hampel, J., & Bardes, J. (2004). GM Foods and the Misperception of Risk Perception. Risk Analysis, 24(1), 185-194.
George, R. (2006). A cross‐domain analysis of change in students’ attitudes toward science and attitudes about the utility of science. International Journal of Science Education, 28(6), 571-589.
Gilbert, J. K. (2006). On the nature of “context” in chemical education. International Journal of Science Education, 28(9), 957-976.
Goffin, R. D. (2007). Assessing the adequacy of structural equation models: Golden rules and editorial policies. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 831-839.
Haidar, H., Chouman, M., & Tayeh, P. A. (2014). Attitudes of Lebanese Secondary School Students and Teachers towards Biotechnology and its Teaching. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(6), 430-435.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6.
Jeong, H., & Lee, W. (2016). The Pure and the Overarching: An Application of Bifactor Model to Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 4(6), 110.
Kidman, G. (2009). Attitudes and interests towards biotechnology: The mismatch between students and teachers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 5(2), 135-143.
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.
Klop, T. (2008). Attitudes of secondary school students towards modern biotechnology. (Doctoral Thesis). Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam.
Klop, T., Severiens, S. E., Knippels, M. C. P. J., van Mil, M. H. W., & Ten Dam, G. T. M. (2010). Effects of a Science Education Module on Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology of Secondary School Students. International Journal of Science Education, 32(9), 1127-1150.
Koballa Jr, T. R. (1988). Attitude and related concepts in science education. Science education, 72(2), 115-126.
Koballa Jr, T. R., & Glynn, S. M. (2007). Attitudinal and motivational constructs in science learning. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (pp. 75-102). Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.
Loehlin, J. C. (2004). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural equation analysis (4th ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Magnusson, M. K., & Hursti, U.-K. K. (2002). Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods. Appetite, 39(1), 9-24.
Markland, D. (2007). The golden rule is that there are no golden rules: A commentary on Paul Barrett’s recommendations for reporting model fit in structural equation modelling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 851-858.
Min, I., Cortina, K. S., & Miller, K. F. (2016). Modesty bias and the attitude-achievement paradox across nations: A reanalysis of TIMSS. Learning and Individual Differences, 51, 359-366.
Morrell, P. D., & Lederman, N. G. (1998). Student’s Attitudes Toward School and Classroom Science: Are They Independent Phenomena? School Science and Mathematics, 98(2), 76-83.
Mowen, D. L., Roberts, T. G., Wingenbach, G. J., & Harlin, J. F. (2007). Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers’ Knowledge and Attitudes. Journal of Agricultural Education, 48(1), 42-51.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2018). Mplus User’s Guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nordqvist, O., & Aronsson, H. (2019). It is time for a new direction in biotechnology education research. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 47(2), 189-200.
Osborne, J., & Dillon, J. (2008). Science education in Europe: Critical reflections (Vol. 13): London: The Nuffield Foundation.
Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049-1079.
Papanastasiou, C., & Papanastasiou, E. C. (2004). Major influences on attitudes toward science. Educational research and Evaluation, 10(3), 239-257.
Pardo, R., & Calvo, F. (2002). Attitudes toward science among the European public: a methodological analysis. Public Understanding of Science, 11(2), 155-195.
Potvin, P., & Hasni, A. (2014a). Analysis of the Decline in Interest Towards School Science and Technology from Grades 5 Through 11. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(6), 784-802.
Potvin, P., & Hasni, A. (2014b). Interest, motivation and attitude towards science and technology at K-12 levels: a systematic review of 12 years of educational research. Studies in Science Education, 50(1), 85-129.
Prokop, P., Lešková, A., Kubiatko, M., & Diran, C. (2007). Slovakian Students’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology. International Journal of Science Education, 29(7), 895-907.
Rahayu, S. (2015). Evaluating the affective dimension in chemistry education. In M. O. Murat Kahveci (Ed.), Affective dimensions in chemistry education (pp. 29-49): Springer.
Reise, S. P. (2012). The Rediscovery of Bifactor Measurement Models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47(5), 667-696.
Rosenberg, M. J., & Hovland, C. I. (1960). Cognitive, affective and behavioural components of attitudes. In M. J. Rosenberg & C. I. Hovland (Eds.), Attitude organisation and change: An analysis of consistency among attitude components (pp. 1-14). New Have, CT: Yale University Press.
Severcan, F., Ozan, A., & Haris, P. I. (2000). Development of biotechnology education in Turkey. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 28(1), 36-38.
Song, J. (2009). The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics AU - Kim, Minkee. International Journal of Science Education, 31(17), 2385-2406.
Sorgo, A., & Ambrozic-Dolinsek, J. (2009). The relationship among knowledge of, attitudes toward and acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among Slovenian teachers. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 12(4).
Telli, S., Brok, P. d., & Cakiroglu, J. (2010). The importance of teacher–student interpersonal relationships for Turkish students’ attitudes towards science. Research in Science & Technological Education, 28(3), 261-276.
Tuan, H.-L., Chin, C. C., & Shieh, S. H. (2005). The development of a questionnaire to measure students’ motivation towards science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 27(6), 639-654.
Usak, M., Erdogan, M., Prokop, P., & Ozel, M. (2009). High School and University Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Biotechnology. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 37(2), 123-130.
Weinburgh, M. H., & Englehard Jr, G. (1994). Gender, prior academic performance and beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward biology laboratory experiences. School Science and Mathematics, 94(3), 118-123.
Willson, V. L. (1983). A meta‐analysis of the relationship between science achievement and science attitude: Kindergarten through college. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(9), 839-850.
Wu, A. D., Li, Z., & Zumbo, B. D. (2007). Decoding the meaning of factorial invariance and updating the practice of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis: A demonstration with TIMSS data. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 12(3), 1-26.
Zacharia, Z., & Barton, A. C. (2004). Urban middle‐school students’ attitudes toward a defined science. Science education, 88(2), 197-222.
Zeller, M. F. (1994). Biotechnology in the high school biology curriculum: the future is here! The American Biology Teacher, 56, 460-464.
Zembylas, M. (2016). Making sense of the complex entanglement between emotion and pedagogy: contributions of the affective turn. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 11(3), 539-550.