Computer simulations and animations in the teaching and learning of chemical kinetics, equilibrium, and energetics: Assessing teachers’ pedagogical skills in Tanzania secondary schools
More details
Hide details
African Centre of Excellence for Innovative Teaching and Learning Mathematics and Science (ACEITLMS), University of Rwanda-College of Education (UR-CE), Kigali, RWANDA
University of Dodoma, Dodoma, TANZANIA
University of Rwanda-College of Education (UR-CE), Kigali, RWANDA
School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA
Publication date: 2022-10-02
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2022;18(11):em2174
This paper presents changes on teachers’ pedagogical skills in using computer simulations and animations to support the teaching and learning of chemistry concepts. It draws on the data that were collected using a mixed-method research approach coupled with pre- and post-assessment of 20 level three chemistry teachers. The data from classroom observation were quantitatively analyzed using means, standard deviations, and a sample paired t-test. Thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. The results showed that teachers’ pedagogical skills in using computer simulations and animations in teaching and learning chemical kinetics, equilibrium, and energetics were low in pre-instruction, with an overall mean of 1.3±0.1. In post-instruction, the findings indicate that teachers have improved pedagogical skills, with an overall mean of 3.9±0.06 and p-value of 0.000. Therefore, teachers need improved pedagogical strategies to use computer simulations and animations as viable instructional resources for teaching and learning of chemistry concepts.
Atkinson, J., & Bolt, S. (2010). Using teaching observations to reflect upon and improve teaching practice in higher education. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 1-9.
Beichumila, F., Bahati, B., & Kafanabo, E. (2022). Students’ acquisition of science process skills in chemistry through computer simulations and animations in secondary schools in Tanzania. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(3), 166-195.
Bete, A. O. (2020). Students’ knowledge and process skills in learning grade-8 chemistry. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 10(1), 1-13.
Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the literature. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics. Science and Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.
Brantley-Dias, L., & Ertmer, P.A. (2013). Goldilocks and TPACK. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(2), 103-128.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2012). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. SAGE.
Çelik, B. (2022). The effects of computer simulations on students’ science process skills: Literature review. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 2(1), 16-28.
Choy, D., Wong, A. F. L., Lim, K. M., & Chong, S. (2013). Beginning teachers’ perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills in teaching: A three year study. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(5), 68-79.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education. Routledge.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. SAGE.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE.
Das, K. (2019). The role and impact of ICT in improving the quality of education: An overview. International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sociology and Humanities, 4(6), 97-103.
de Jong, T., & Njoo, M. (1992). Learning and instruction with computer simulations: Learning processes involved. In E. De Corte, M. Linn, H. Mandl, & L. Verschaffel (Eds.), Computer-based learning environments and problem solving (pp. 411-429). Springer.
Demirci, C. (2009). Constructivist learning approach in science teaching. HUJ Education, 37(1), 24-35.
Develaki, M. (2019). Methodology and epistemology of computer simulations and implications for science education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28, 353-370.
Doerr, H. M., Ärlebäck, J. B., & O’Neil, A. H. (2013). Teaching practices and exploratory computer simulations. Computers in the Schools, 30(1-2), 102-123.
Gacheri, G., & Ndege, N. M. (2014). Science process skills application in practical assessments in Maara District secondary schools, Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 102-131.
Gegios, T., Salta, K., & Koinis, S. (2017). Investigating high-school chemical kinetics: The Greek chemistry textbook and students’ difficulties. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 1(18), 151-168.
Jamil, M. G., & Isiaq, S. O. (2019). Teaching technology with technology: Approaches to bridging learning and teaching gaps in simulation-based programming education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(25), 1-21.
Kafyulilo, A., & Keengwe, J. (2013). Teachers’ perspectives on their use of ICT in teaching and learning: A case study. Educational Information Technology, 19(1), 913-923.
Kelly, M. A., Hopwood R. N., Rooney, D., & Boud, D. (2016). Enhancing students’ learning through simulation: Dealing with diverse, large cohorts. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 12(5), 171-176.
Khan, S. (2011). New pedagogies on teaching science with computer simulations. Journal of Science Education Technology, 20(3), 215-232.
Kihoza, P. D., Zlotnikova, I., Bada, J. K., & Kalegele, K. (2016). An assessment of teachers’ abilities to support blended learning implementation in Tanzania secondary schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 7(1), 60-84.
Kilic, A. (2010). Learner-centered microteaching in teacher education. International Journal of Instruction, 3(1), 77-100.
Kinyota, M. (2020). The status of and challenges facing secondary science teaching in Tanzania: A focus on inquiry-based science teaching and the nature of science. International Journal of Science Education, 42(13), 2126-2144.
Kunnath, B., & Kriek, J. (2018). Exploring effective pedagogies using computer simulations to improve grade 12 learners’ understanding of the photoelectric effect. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 22(3), 1-11.
Lati, W., Supasorn, S., & Promarak, V. (2012). Enhancement of learning achievement and integrated science process skills using science inquiry learning activities of chemical reaction rates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4471-4475.
Law, N. (2009). Mathematics and science teachers’ pedagogical orientations and their use of ICT in teaching. Education and Information Technologies, 14(4), 309-323.
Lee, W. C., Neo, W. L., Chen, D. T., & Lin, T. B. (2021). Fostering changes in teacher attitudes toward the use of computer simulations: Flexibility, pedagogy, usability and needs. Educational Information Technology, 26(1), 4905-492).
Mkimbili, S. T., Tiplic, D., & Ødegaard, M. (2017). The role played by contextual challenges in practising inquiry-based science teaching in Tanzania secondary schools. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 21(2), 211-221.
MoEST. (2015). Education and training policy. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
MoEST. (2018). National basic education statistics: National data. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
MoEST. (2019a). National curriculum framework for basic and teacher education. Tanzania Institute of Education.
MoEST. (2019b). National basic education statistics: National data. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
MoEST. (2020). National basic education statistics: National data. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
MoEVT. (2007). Curriculum for ordinally level secondary schools Form 1-1V. Tanzania Institute of Education.
MoEVT. (2010). Chemistry syllabus for secondary schools. Tanzania Institute of Education.
Moore, E. B., Chamberlain, J. M., Parson, R., & Kerkins, K. (2014). PhET interactive simulations: Transformative tools for teaching chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 91(8), 1190-1197
Murithi, N; Gitong, D., & Kimathi, P. (2013). School ICT policy, a factor influencing implementation of computer studies curriculum in secondary schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 24(4), 197-202.
Mutch, C. (2013). Doing educational research: A practitioner guide to getting started. NZCER Press.
Nkemakolam, O. E., Chinelo, O. F., & Jane, M. C. (2018). Effect of computer simulations on secondary school students’ academic achievement in chemistry in Anambra State. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(4), 284-289.
Nxumalo-Dlamini, N. L., & Gaigher, E. (2019). Teachers’ use of computer-based simulations in teaching electrolysis: A case study in Eswatini. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 23(3), 320-331,
Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge.
Plass, J. L., Milne, C., Homer, B. D., Schwartz, R. N., Hayward, E. O., Jordan, T., Verkuilen, J., Ng, F., Wang, Y., & Barrientos, J. (2012). Investigating the effectiveness of computer simulations for chemistry learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(3), 394-419.
Pritchard, A. (2010). Ways of learning: Learning theories and styles in the classroom. Routledge.
Rahman, S., Tambi, F., & Anny, Z. (2020). The importance of enhancing pedagogical skills through continuing professional development. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 9(4), 121-129.
Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioners-researchers. Wiley-Blackwell.
Rogers, L., & Finlayson, H. (2004). Developing successful pedagogy with information and communications technology: How are science teachers meeting the challenge. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 13(3), 287-305.
Rutten, N., van der Veen, J. T., & van Joolingen W. R. (2015). Inquiry based whole class teaching with computer simulations in physics. International Journal of Science Education, 37(8), 1225-1245.
Sarabando, C., Cravinob, J., & Soares, A. (2014). Contribution of a computer simulation to students’ learning of the physics concepts of weight and mass. Procedia Technology, 13, 112-121.
Semali, L. M., & Mehta, K. (2012). Science education in Tanzania: Challenges and policy responses. International Journal of Educational Research, 53(1), 225-239.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reforms. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
Smetana, L. K., & Bell, R. L. (2012). Computer simulations to support science instruction and learning: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 34(9), 1337-1370.
Trindade, J., Fiolhais, C., & Almedia, L. (2002). Science learning in virtual environments: A descriptive study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 1- 18.
Tsai, C. C., & Chai, C. S. (2012). The “third”-order barrier for technology-integration instruction: Implications for instructor education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 1057-1060.
UNESCO. (2009). Current challenges in basic science education. UNESCO.
Voogt, J. (2009). How different are ICT-supported pedagogical practices from extensive and non-extensive ICT-using science teachers? Education and Information Technologies, 14(4), 325-343.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental process. Harvard University Press.
Watson, S., Dubrovskiy, A., & Peters, M. (2020). Increasing chemistry students’ knowledge, confidence, and conceptual understanding of PH using a collaborative computer PH simulation. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 21, 528-535.
Yadav, B., & Mishra, S. K. (2013). A study of the impact of laboratory approach on achievement and process skills in science among is standard students. International Journal of Scientific Publications, 3(1), 2250-3153.
Zendler, A., & Greiner, H. (2020). The effect of two instructional methods on learning outcome in chemistry education: The experiment method and computer simulation. Education for Chemical Engineers, 30(1), 9-19.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top