Development and validation of the secondary mathematics teachers’ TPACK scale: A study in the Chinese context
Mao Li 1
More details
Hide details
School of Curriculum, Teaching and Inclusion, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
School of Education, Culture and Society, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Online publication date: 2023-09-11
Publication date: 2023-11-01
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2023;19(11):em2350
This study aimed to develop and validate the secondary mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) scale (SMTTS) to assess the knowledge domains of TPACK framework among secondary mathematics teachers in China. SMTTS was designed to be subject-oriented and culturally relevant, addressing the specific needs and context of mathematics education in China. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire from secondary mathematics teachers in Chongqing Jiulongpo District. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. The findings demonstrated that SMTTS exhibited strong reliability and validity, supporting its use as a robust measurement tool for assessing secondary mathematics teachers’ TPACK. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties, including satisfactory factor loadings, internal consistency, and model fit indices. The development of SMTTS contributes to the field by providing a precise and reliable instrument that can inform the design of targeted professional development programs and guide policy decisions regarding technology integration in mathematics education. This study has theoretical and practical implications. SMTTS addresses the need for a subject-specific and culturally relevant assessment tool for measuring TPACK in mathematics education. It acknowledges mathematics teachers’ unique challenges in integrating digital technologies into their instructional practices. The scale’s development and validation process incorporated considerations of the Chinese educational context, enhancing its relevance for practitioners and researchers in China. SMTTS can facilitate the identification of areas for improvement in teachers’ TPACK and guide the implementation of tailored interventions and support initiatives.
Acikgul, K., & Aslaner, R. (2020). Effects of GeoGebra supported micro teaching applications and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) game practices on TPACK levels of prospective teachers. Education and Information Technologies, 25(3), 2023-2047.
Alabdulaziz, M. S. (2021). COVID-19 and the use of digital technology in mathematics education. Education and Information Technologies, 26, 7609-7633.
Alneyadi, S., & Wardat, Y. (2023). ChatGPT: Revolutionizing student achievement in the electronic magnetism unit for eleventh-grade students in Emirates schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(4), ep448.
Angeli, C., Valanides, N., & Christodoulou, A. (2016). Theoretical considerations of technological pedagogical content knowledge. In M. C. Herring, M. J. Koehler, & P. Mishra (Eds.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for educators (pp. 11-32). Routledge.
Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the literature. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.
Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford University Press.
Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with Amos basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge.
Caniglia, J., & Meadows, M. (2018). Pre-service mathematics teachers’ use of web resources. International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, 25(3), 17-34.
Cao, Y., Zhang, S., Chan, M. C. E., & Kang, Y. (2021). Post-pandemic reflections: Lessons from Chinese mathematics teachers about online mathematics instruction. Asia Pacific Education Review, 22(2), 157-168.
Cetin, I., & Erdogan, A. (2018). Development, validity and reliability study of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) efficiency scale for mathematics teacher candidates. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 5(1), 50-62.
Chai, C. S., Jong, M. S. Y., Yin, H. B., Chen, M. Y., & Zhou, W. Y. (2019). Validating and modelling teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge for integrative science, technology, engineering and mathematics education. Educational Technology & Society, 22(3), 61-73.
Chai, C. S., Ng, E. M. W., Li, W., Hong, H. Y., & Koh, J. H. L. (2013). Validating and modelling technological pedagogical content knowledge framework among Asian preservice teachers. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(1), 41-53.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research methods in education. Routledge.
De Vita, M., Verschaffel, L., & Elen, J. (2018). The power of interactive whiteboards for secondary mathematics teaching: Two case studies. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 47(1), 50-78.
DeVellis, R. F. (2017). Scale development theory and applications. SAGE.
Drijvers, P. (2015). Digital technology in mathematics education: Why it works (or doesn’t). In S. J. Cho (Ed.), Selected regular lectures from the 12th International Congress on Mathematical Education (pp. 135-151). Springer.
Drijvers, P., Doorman, M., Boon, P., Reed, H., & Gravemeijer, K. (2010). The teacher and the tool: Instrumental orchestrations in the technology-rich mathematics classroom. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 75(2), 213-234.
Gao, X. (2021). The development of problem solving in Chinese mathematics curricula. In B. Xu, Y. Zhu, & X. Lu (Eds.), Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 87-108). Springer.
Giannakos, M. N., Doukakis, S., Pappas, I. O., Adamopoulos, N., & Giannopoulou, P. (2014). Investigating teachers’ confidence on technological pedagogical and content knowledge: An initial validation of TPACK scales in K-12 computing education context. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(1), 43-59.
Gonzales, G. G., & Gonzales, R. R. (2021). Introducing IWB to preservice mathematics teachers: An evaluation using TPACK framework. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(2), 436-450.
Graham, C. R. (2011). Theoretical considerations for understanding technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers & Education, 57(3), 1953-1960.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Pearson.
Hamad, S., Tairab, H., Wardat, Y., Rabbani, L., AlArabi, K., Yousif, M., Abu-Al-Aish, A., & Stoica, G. (2022). Understanding science teachers’ implementations of integrated STEM: Teacher perceptions and practice. Sustainability, 14(6), 3594.
Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. J. (2011). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in action: A descriptive study of secondary teachers’ curriculum-based, technology-related instructional planning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 211-229.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
Ho, R. (2014). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis with IBM SPSS. Taylor & Francis.
Hoyles, C. (2018). Transforming the mathematical practices of learners and teachers through digital technology. Research in Mathematics Education, 20(3), 209-228.
Ifinedo, E., & Kankaanranta, M. (2021). Understanding the influence of context in technology integration from teacher educators’ perspective. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 30(2), 201-215.
Khong, H., Celik, I., Le, T. T. T., Lai, V. T. T., Nguyen, A., & Bui, H. (2023). Examining teachers’ behavioral intention for online teaching after COVID-19 pandemic: A large-scale survey. Education and Information Technologies, 28, 5999-6026.
Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Journal of Education, 193(3), 13-19.
Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Lim, W. Y. (2016). Teacher professional development for TPACK-21CL. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(2), 172-196.
Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Examining the technological pedagogical content knowledge of Singapore pre-service teachers with a large-scale survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(6), 563-573.
Li, M. (2023). Chinese mathematics teachers’ TPACK and attitudes toward ICT integration in the post-pandemic era. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(7), em2301.
Mailizar, M., Hidayat, M., & Al-Manthari, A. (2021). Examining the impact of mathematics teachers’ TPACK on their acceptance of online professional development. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 37(3), 196-212.
Martinovic, D., & Karadag, Z. (2012). Dynamic and interactive mathematics learning environments: The case of teaching the limit concept. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 31(1), 41-48.
Mella-Norambuena, J., Cobo-Rendon, R., Lobos, K., Sáez-Delgado, F., & Maldonado-Trapp, A. (2021). Smartphone use among undergraduate STEM students during COVID-19: An opportunity for higher education? Education Sciences, 11(8), 417.
Ministry of Education the People's Republic of China. (2019). The opinions on the implementation of the national primary and secondary school teachers' information technology application ability enhancement project 2.0.
Mishra, P. (2019). Considering contextual knowledge: TPACK diagram gets an upgrade. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 35(2), 76-78.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
Niess, M. L. (2011). Investigating TPACK: Knowledge growth in teaching with technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(3), 299-317.
Niess, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Shafer, K. G., Driskell, S. O., Harper S. R., Johnston, C., Browning, C., Ozgun-Koca, S. A., & Kersaint, G. (2009). Mathematics teacher TPACK standards and development model. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 4-24.
Noori, A. Q. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on students’ learning in higher education in Afghanistan. Heliyon, 7(10), e08113.
Noori, A. Q., Orfan, S. N., Akramy, S. A., & Hashemi, A. (2022). The use of social media in EFL learning and teaching in higher education of Afghanistan. Cogent Social Sciences, 8(1), 2027613.
Patahuddin, S. M., Lowrie, T., & Dalgarno, B. (2016). Analyzing mathematics teachers’ TPACK through observation of practice. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(5-6), 863-872.
Porras-Hernández, L. H., & Salinas-Amescua, B. (2013). Strengthening TPACK: A broader notion of context and the use of teacher’s narratives to reveal knowledge construction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 48(2), 223-244.
Rakes, C. R., Stites, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Bush, S. B., Fisher, M. H., Safi, F., Desai, S., Schmidt, A., Andreasen, J. B., Saderholm, J., Amick, L., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., & Viera, J. (2022). Teaching mathematics with technology: TPACK and effective teaching practices. Education Sciences, 12(2), 133.
Rezat, S. (2021). How automated feedback from a digital mathematics textbook affects primary students’ conceptual development: Two case studies. ZDM-Mathematics Education, 53(6), 1433-1445.
Roni, S. M. (2021). Data analysis with SPSS for survey-based research. Springer.
Rosenberg, J. M., & Koehler, M. J. (2015). Context and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): A systematic review. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(3), 186-210.
Sahin, I. (2011). Development of survey of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1), 97-105.
Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): The development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149.
Scott, K. C. (2021). A review of faculty self-assessment TPACK instruments (January 2006-March 2020). International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 17(2), 118-137.
Scott, K. C., & Nimon, K. (2020). Construct validity of data from a TPACK self-assessment instrument in 2-year public college faculty in the United States. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 53(4), 427-445.
Shi, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, H., & Yang, H. H. (2020). Effects of interactive whiteboard-based instruction on students’ cognitive learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Interactive Learning Environments, 29(2), 283-300.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
Su, X., Huang, X., Zhou, C., & Chang, M. (2017). A technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) scale for geography teachers in senior high school. Education and Science, 42(190), 325-341.
Sun, S., Wu, X., & Xu, T. (2023). A theoretical framework for a mathematical cognitive model for adaptive learning systems. Behavioral Sciences, 13(5), 406.
Tanu Wijaya, T. (2020). How Chinese students learn mathematics during the coronavirus pandemic. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, 15, 1-16.
Valtonen, T., Sointu, E., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Lambert, M. C., & Mäkitalo-Siegl, K. (2017). TPACK updated to measure pre-service teachers’ twenty-first century skills. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 15-31.
Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Pareja Roblin, N., Tondeur, J., & van Braak, J. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge–A review of the literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(2), 109-121.
Wang, L., Liu, Q., Du, X., & Liu, J. (2017). Chinese mathematics curriculum reform in the 21st century: A review. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(8), 5311-5326.
Wardat, Y., Tashtoush, M. A., AlAli, R., & Jarrah, A. M. (2023). ChatGPT: A revolutionary tool for teaching and learning mathematics. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(7), em2286.
Willermark, S. (2018). Technological pedagogical and content knowledge: A review of empirical studies published from 2011 to 2016. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(3), 315-343.
Xiong, X. B., Chai, C. S., Tsai, C. C., & Liang, J. C. (2020). Exploring the relationship between Chinese pre-service teachers’ epistemic beliefs and their perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Educational Studies, 48(6), 750-771.
Yao, X., & Zhao, J. (2022). Chinese mathematics teachers’ use of digital technologies for instruction: A survey study. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 18(8), em2135.
Zambak, V. S., & Tyminski, A. M. (2019). Examining mathematical technological knowledge of pre-service middle grades teachers with Geometer’s Sketchpad in a geometry course. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 51(2), 183-207.
Zhang, J., Fang, Y., & Ma, X. (2010). The latest progress report on ICT application in Chinese basic education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(4), 567-573.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top