Augmented reality learning media based on tetrahedral chemical representation: How effective in learning process?
More details
Hide details
Department of Chemistry Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Central Java, INDONESIA
Online publication date: 2023-06-23
Publication date: 2023-08-01
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2023;19(8):em2313
The implementation of technology in the era of Society 5.0 runs massively in the world of education. One of them is in the form of augmented reality (AR) learning media. AR technology that can visualize abstract chemical topics in line with the concept of tetrahedral chemical representation. Therefore, this study aims to design and test the effectiveness of AR learning media based on tetrahedral chemical representation. This study used research and development methods with ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model. The topic of chemical equilibrium chemistry was chosen in this study to develop AR media. This research was conducted in three representative schools in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 168 students from three representative schools (66 male and 102 female) participated as subjects in the Implementation stage. In addition, a multiple-choice instrument with 24 parallel questions on the pre- and post-test was used to determine the effect of the developed media on the experimental and control classes. The results showed that the design of AR learning media based on tetrahedral chemical representations was successfully developed and proved effective in improving learning outcomes. Student response sheets are given after using the media to find user experience regarding the strength and weaknesses of AR media.
Abdinejad, M., Talaie, B., Qorbani, H. S., & Dalili, S. (2020). Student perceptions using augmented reality and 3D visualization technologies in chemistry education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30, 87-96.
Aiken, L. R. (1980). Content validity and reliability of single items or questionnaires. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40(4), 955-959.
Aiken, L. R., Aiken, L. R., & Aiken, R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45(1), 131-141.
Al-Azawi, R., Albadi, A., Moghaddas, R., & Westlake, J. (2019). Exploring the potential of using augmented reality and virtual reality for STEM education. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1011, 36-44.
Aliyu, F., & Talib, C. A. (2020). Integration of augmented reality in learning chemistry: A pathway for realization of industrial revolution 4.0 goals. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(7), 854-859.
Andrejevic, M., & Selwyn, N. (2020). Facial recognition technology in schools: Critical questions and concerns. Learning, Media and Technology, 45(2), 115-128.
Annetta, L. A., & Shapiro, M. (2019). Augmented reality applications for teaching chemistry across the K-20 curriculum. ACS Symposium Series, 1318, 23-30.
Antee, A. (2021). Student perceptions and mobile technology adoption: Implications for lower-income students shifting to digital. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 191-194.
Astuti, A. P., Mawarsari, V. D., Purnomo, H., & Sediyono, E. (2020). The use of augmented reality-based learning media to develop the technology literacy of chemistry teachers in the 21st century. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2215, 020002.
Berendt, B., Littlejohn, A., & Blakemore, M. (2020). AI in education: Learner choice and fundamental rights. Learning, Media and Technology, 00(0), 312-324.
Brunnert, R., Bohrmann-Linde, C., Meuter, N., Pereira Vaz, N., Spinnen, S., Yurdanur, Y., & W. Tausch, M. (2018). The fascinating world of photochemistry. Educación Química [Chemistry Education], 29(3), 108.
Bucat, B., & Mocerino, M. (2009). Learning at the sub-micro level: Structural representations. In J. K. Gilbert, & D. Treagust (Eds.), Multiple representations in chemical education (pp. 11-29). Springer.
Burmeister, M., Rauch, F., & Eilks, I. (2012). Education for sustainable development (ESD) and chemistry education. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 13(2), 59-68.
Burmeister, M., Schmidt-Jacob, S., & Eilks, I. (2013). German chemistry teachers’ understanding of sustainability and education for sustainable development–An interview case study. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 14(2), 169-176.
Cai, S., Liu, C., Wang, T., Liu, E., & Liang, J.-C. (2021). Effects of learning physics using augmented reality on students self‐efficacy and.pdf. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(1), 235-251.
Cai, S., Wang, X., & Chiang, F. K. (2014). A case study of augmented reality simulation system application in a chemistry course. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 31-40.
Câmara Olim, S. M., Nisi, V., & Rubegni, E. (2022). Periodic fable augmenting chemistry with technology, characters and storytelling. In Proceedings of the Interaction Design and Children (pp. 123-136).
Cen, L., Ruta, D., Al Qassem, L. M. M. S., & Ng, J. (2020). Augmented immersive reality (AIR) for improved learning performance: A quantitative evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 13(2), 283-296.
Chen, S. Y., & Liu, S. Y. (2020). Using augmented reality to experiment with elements in a chemistry course. Computers in Human Behavior, 111, 106418.
Cheng, Y., Lee, M.-H., Yang, C.-S., & Wu, P.-Y. (2022). Hands-on interaction in the augmented reality (AR) chemistry laboratories enhances the learning effects of low-achieving students: A pilot study. Interactive Technology and Smart Education.
Clements, D. N., Broadhurst, H., Clarke, S. P., Farrell, M., Bennett, D., Mosley, J. R., & Mellanby, R. J. (2013). The effectiveness of 3D animations to enhance understanding of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 40(1), 29-34.
Coll, R. K. (2006). The role of models, mental models and analogies in chemistry teaching. In P. J. Aubusson, A. G. Harrison, & S. M. Ritchie (Eds.), Metaphor and analogy in science education (pp. 65-77). Springer.
Dave, I. R., Chaudhary, V., & Upla, K. P. (2019). Simulation of analytical chemistry experiments on augmented reality platform. In C. Panigrahi, A. Pujari, S. Misra, B. Pati, & K. C. Li (Eds.), Progress in advanced computing and intelligent engineering (pp. 393-403). Springer.
Eljack, S. M., Alfayez, F., & Suleman, N. M. (2020). Organic chemistry virtual laboratory enhancement. International Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, 15(1), 309-323.
Ewais, A., & de Troyer, O. (2019). A usability and acceptance evaluation of the use of augmented reality for learning atoms and molecules reaction by primary school female students in Palestine. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1643-1670.
Fombona-Pascual, A., Fombona, J., & Vicente, R. (2022). Augmented reality, a review of a way to represent and manipulate 3D chemical structures. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 62(8), 1863-1872.
Furst, E. J. (1981). Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives for the cognitive domain: Philosophical and educational issues. Review of Educational Research, 51(4), 441-453.
Gabel, D. (1999). Improving teaching and learning through chemistry education research: A look to the future. Journal of Chemical Education, 76(2-4), 548-554.
Ganaras, K., Dumon, A., & Larcher, C. (2008). Conceptual integration of chemical equilibrium by prospective physical sciences teachers. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9, 240-249.
Gilbert, J. K., & Treagust, D. F. (2009a). Macro, submicro and symbolic representations and the relationship between them: Key models in chemical education. In J. K. Gilbert, & D. F. Treagust (Eds.), Multiple representations in chemical education (pp. 1-18). Springer.
Gilbert, J. K., & Treagust, D. F. (2009b). Models and modeling in science education: Multiple representations in chemical education. Springer.
Gkitzia, V., Salta, K., & Tzougraki, C. (2020). Students’ competence in translating between different types of chemical representations. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 21(1), 307-330.
Gudyanga, E., & Madambi, T. (2014). Student misconceptions about bonding and chemical structure in chemistry. Midlands State University.
Guo, J., Zhu, R., Zhao, Q., Li, M., & Zhang, S. (2020). Adoption of the online platforms rain classroom and WeChat for teaching organic chemistry during COVID-19. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 3246-3250.
Herga, N. R., Cagran, B., & Dinevski, D. (2016). Virtual laboratory in the role of dynamic visualization for better understanding of chemistry in primary school. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(3), 593-608.
Hitachi-UTokyo Laboratory. (2020). Society 5.0: A people-centric super-smart society. Springer.
Huang, J. (2020). Successes and challenges: Online teaching and learning of chemistry in higher education in China in the time of COVID-19. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 2810-2814.
Ilyasa, D. G., & Dwiningsih, K. (2020a). Model multimedia interaktif berbasis unity untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar ikatan ion [Unity-based interactive multimedia model to improve ionic bond learning outcomes]. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia [Journal of Chemistry Education Innovation], 14(2), 2572-2584.
Ilyasa, D. G., & Dwiningsih, K. (2020b). The validity of interactive multimedia on ionic bond material. Journal of Chemistry Education Research, 3(2), 51-57.
Inquimbert, C., Tramini, P., Romieu, O., & Giraudeau, N. (2019). Pedagogical evaluation of digital technology to enhance dental student learning. European Journal of Dentistry, 13(1), 53-57.
Karnishyna, D. A., Selivanova, T. V, Nechypurenko, P. P., Starova, T. V, & Stoliarenko, V. G. (2022). The use of augmented reality in chemistry lessons in the study of “oxygen-containing organic compounds” using the mobile application Blippar. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2288(1), 012018.
Kartimi, K., Yunita, Y., Addiin, I., & Shidiq, A. S. (2022). A bibliometric analysis on chemistry virtual laboratory. Educación Química [Chemistry Education], 33(2), 194.
Kaur, D. P., Mantri, A., & Horan, B. (2020). Enhancing student motivation with use of augmented reality for interactive learning in engineering education. Procedia Computer Science, 172(2019), 881-885.
Kaya, O. S., & Bicen, H. (2019). Study of augmented reality applications use in education and its effect on the academic performance. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 17(3), 25-36.
Khan, T., Johnston, K., & Ophoff, J. (2019). The impact of an augmented reality application on learning motivation of students. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2019, 7208494.
Kuit, V. K., & Osman, K. (2021). CHEMBOND3D e-module effectiveness in enhancing students’ knowledge of chemical bonding concept and visual-spatial skills. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(4), 252-264.
Lam, M. C., Tee, H. K., Muhammad Nizam, S. S., Hashim, N. C., Suwadi, N. A., Tan, S. Y., Abd Majid, N. A., Arshad, H., & Liew, S. Y. (2020). Interactive augmented reality with natural action for chemistry experiment learning. TEM Journal, 9(1), 351-360.
Lewthwaite, B. (2014). Research and practice thinking about practical work in chemistry: Teachers’ considerations of selected practices for the macroscopic experience. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 15(1), 35-46.
Lewthwaite, B., Doyle, T., & Owen, T. (2014). “Did something happen to you over the summer?”: Tensions in intentions for chemistry education. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 15(2), 142-155.
Ling, Y., Zhu, P., & Yu, J. (2021). Which types of learners are suitable for augmented reality? A fuzzy set analysis of learning outcomes configurations from the perspective of individual differences. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(6), 2985-3008.
Liu, Q., Ma, J., Yu, S., Wang, Q., & Xu, S. (2022). Effects of an augmented reality-based chemistry experiential application on student knowledge gains, learning motivation, and technology perception. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 32, 153-167.
Mahaffy, P. G. (2004). The future shape of chemistry education. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 5(1), 229-245.
Mahaffy, P. G. (2006). Moving chemistry education into 3D: A tetrahedral metaphor for understanding chemistry union carbide award for chemical education. Journal of Chemical Education, 83(1), 49-55.
Mahaffy, P. G., Krief, A., Hopf, H., Mehta, G., & Matlin, S. A. (2018). Reorienting chemistry education through systems thinking. Nature Reviews Chemistry, 2(4), 1-3.
Mahaffy, P. G., Martin, B. E., Kirchho, M., Mckenzie, L., Holme, T., Versprille, A., Towns, M., Kirchhoff, M., Mckenzie, L., Holme, T., Versprille, A., & Towns, M. (2014). Infusing sustainability science literacy through chemistry education: Climate science as a Rich context for learning chemistry. Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2(11), 2488-2494.
Mahaffy, P. G., Matlin, S. A., Holme, T. A., & MacKellar, J. (2019). Systems thinking for education about the molecular basis of sustainability. Nature Sustainability, 2(5), 362-370.
Mahanan, M. S., Ibrahim, N. H., Surif, J., & Nee, C. K. (2021). AR module for learning changes of matter in chemistry. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(23), 72-88.
Marsh, K. R., Giffin, B. F., & Lowrie, D. J. (2008). Medical student retention of embryonic development: Impact of the dimensions added by multimedia tutorials. Anatomical Sciences Education, 1(6), 252-257.
Martín-gutiérrez, J., Fabiani, P., Benesova, W., Dolores, M., & Mora, C. E. (2015). Computers in human behavior augmented reality to promote collaborative and autonomous learning in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 752-761.
Mayilyan, H., Poghosyan, S., & Avetisyan, H. (2018). Educational augmented reality systems: Benefits of implementation and government support. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (pp. 23-27). VARE.
Merino, C., Marzábal, A., Quiroz, W., Pino, S., López-Cortés, F., Carrasco, X., & Miller, B. G. (2022). Use of augmented reality in chromatography learning: How is this dynamic visual artifact fostering the visualization capacities of chemistry undergraduate students? Frontiers in Education, 7.
Midak, L. Y., Kravets, I. V., Kuzyshyn, O. V., Baziuk, L. V., & Buzhdyhan, K. V. (2021). Specifics of using image visualization within education of the upcoming chemistry teachers with augmented reality technology. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1840, 012013.
Nechypurenko, P. P., Starova, T. V, Selivanova, T. V, Tomilina, A. O., & Uchitel, A. D. (2018). Use of augmented reality in chemistry education. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Augmented Reality in Education (pp. 15-23). CEUR-WS.
Nicoll, G. (2003). A qualitative investigation of undergraduate chemistry students’ macroscopic interpretations of the submicroscopic structure of molecules. Journal of Chemical Education, 80(2), 205-213.
Nuñez, M., Quirós, R., Nuñez, I., Carda, J. B., & Camahort, E. (2008). Collaborative augmented reality for inorganic chemistry education. In Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Engineering Education (pp. 271-277). ACM.
Pochtoviuk, S. I., Vakaliuk, T. A., & Pikilnyak, A. V. (2020). Possibilities of application of augmented reality in different branches of education. SSRN.
Pradani, N., Munzil, & Muchson, M. (2020). Development of guided inquiry based learning materials enriched with augmented reality in electrolysis cell material. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 14(12), 4-15.
Rayan, B., & Rayan, A. (2017). Avogadro program for chemistry education: To what extent can molecular visualization and three-dimensional simulations enhance meaningful chemistry learning? World Journal of Chemical Education, 5(4), 136-141.
Ripsam, M., & Nerdel, C. (2022). Augmented reality for chemistry education to promote the use of chemical terminology in teacher trainings. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.
Sahabuzan, M. H. B. (2012). Learning anatomy for pre schools via Kinect technology.
Saidin, N. F., Halim, N. D. A., & Yahaya, N. (2015). A review of research on augmented reality in education: Advantages and applications. International Education Studies, 8(13), 1-8.
Sang, J. L., Hae, Y. C., & Kim, K. S. (2004). An easy-to-use three-dimensional molecular visualization and analysis program: POSMOL. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 25(7), 1061-1064.
Sari, D. R., Yamtinah, S., Retno, S., Ariani, D., Saputro, S., Vh, E. S., & Shidiq, S. (2022). Augmented reality media validity based on tetrahedral chemical representation with Aiken validation index. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA [Science Education Research Journal], 8(6), 3139-3145.
Satriana, T., Yamtinah, S., Ashadi, & Indriyanti, N. Y. (2018). Student’s profile of misconception in chemical equilibrium. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1097, 012066.
Schmid, J. R., Ernst, M. J., & Thiele, G. (2020). Structural chemistry 2.0: Combining augmented reality and 3D online models. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(12), 4515-4519.
Shidiq, A. S., Permanasari, A., & Hernani. (2020). Review on education for sustainable development: System thinking for sustainable chemistry education curriculum. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(4), 042080.
Shidiq, A. S., Permanasari, A., Hernani, H., & Hendayana, S. (2021). The use of simple spectrophotometer in STEM education: A bibliometric analysis. Moroccan Journal of Chemistry, 9(2), 290-300.
Shidiq, A. S., Permanasari, A., Hernani, H., & Hendayana, S. (2022). Contemporary hybrid laboratory pedagogy: Construction of a simple spectrophotometer with STEM project-based learning to introduce systems thinking skills. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 37(2), 107-146.
Sjöström, J. (2013). Towards Bildung-oriented chemistry education. Science and Education, 22(7), 1873-1890.
Smith, C., & Friel, C. J. (2021). Development and use of augmented reality models to teach medicinal chemistry. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 13(8), 1010-1017.
Sunasee, R. (2020). Challenges of teaching organic chemistry during COVID-19 pandemic at a primarily undergraduate institution. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 3176-3181.
Taber, K. S. (2013). Three levels of chemistry educational research. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 14(2), 151-155.
Takakuwa, S., Veza, I., & Celar, S. (2018). “Industry 4.0” in Europe and East Asia. Annals of DAAAM and Proceedings of the International DAAAM Symposium, 29(1), 0061-0069.
Talanquer, V. (2011). Macro, submicro, and symbolic: The many faces of the chemistry “triplet.” International Journal of Science Education, 33(2), 179-195.
Tarng, W., Tseng, Y., & Ou, K. (2022). Structures and chemical equilibrium in high school chemistry. Systems, 10(5), 141.
Treagust, D. F., Chittleborough, G., & Mamiala, T. L. (2003). The role of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations. International Journal of Science Education, 25(11), 1353-1368.
Wallace, H. S. (2018). Augmented reality: Exploring its potential for extension. Journal of Extension, 56(5), 22.
Wan, A. T., Sun, L. Y., & Omar, M. S. (2018). Augmented reality technology for year 10 chemistry class: Can the students learn better? International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 8(4), 45-64.
Widarti, H. R., Rokhim, D. A., & Muchson, M. (2021). Developing integrated triplet multi-representation virtual laboratory in analytic chemical materials. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(8), 119-135.
Wong, C. H. S., Tsang, K. C. K., & Chiu, W.-K. (2021). Using augmented reality as a powerful and innovative technology to increase enthusiasm and enhance student learning in higher education chemistry courses. Journal of Chemical Education, 98(11), 3476-3485.
Wu, H. K., Lee, S. W. Y., Chang, H. Y., & Liang, J. C. (2013). Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education. Computers and Education, 62, 41-49.
Yamtinah, S., Ariani, S. R. D., Andriyanti, M., Saputro, S., Susilowati, E., Shidiq, A. S., Ramadhani, D. G., & Fakhrudin, I. A. (2021). Examining the content validity of Android-based augmented reality media for chemical bonding using Rasch model. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA [Science Education Research Journal], 7(Special Issue), 320-325.
Yamtinah, S., Dewi, M. C., Nurhayati, N. D., Saputro, S., Fakhrudin, I. A., Ramadhani, D. G., & Shidiq, A. S. (2022). Content validity in Android-based augmented reality media for high school science students on covalent bonds topic: Rasch model analysis. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Indonesia [Journal of Indonesian Science Education], 10(2), 240-249.
Yamtinah, S., Indriyanti, N. Y. Y., Saputro, S., Mulyani, S., Ulfa, M., Mahardiani, L., Satriana, T., & Shidiq, A. S. (2019). The identification and analysis of students’ misconception in chemical equilibrium using computerized two-tier multiple-choice instrument. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157, 042015.
Yanarates, E. (2022). The effect of animated teaching on science teacher candidates’ chemistry achievements and learning persistence. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 17(1), 0-3.
Zhang, J., Sung, Y., Hou, H., & Chang, K. (2014). The development and evaluation of an augmented reality-based armillary sphere for astronomical observation instruction. Computers & Education, 73, 178-188.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top